மைனிங் செக்டாரில் கர்னாடகா, கோவாவில் மட்டும் 12.8 லட்சம் பேர் பணியிழப்பு.

ஆண்டுக்கு ஐந்து கோடி புதிய வேலை வாய்ப்புகளை உருவாக்கும் வகையில் உள்ளது சுரங்க தொழில். ஆனால் அரசின் தவறான கொள்கை முடிவுகளினால் கர்னாடகா, கோவாவில் மட்டும் 12.8 லட்சம் பேர் பணியிழந்து உள்ளார்கள். தமிழகத்திலும் தாது மணல் தொழிலில் சுமார் 50000 பேர் பணியிழந்துள்ளார்கள் என்பது குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.
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‘12.8 lakh jobs lost in Karnataka, Goa mining sector’

A whopping 12.8 lakh direct and indirect jobs were lost in the mining sector across Karnataka and Goa due to failure of regulatory mechanism, lack of oversight, judicial intervention and closure of mines, an industry official said on Wednesday.

Bengaluru: A whopping 12.8 lakh direct and indirect jobs were lost in the mining sector across Karnataka and Goa due to failure of regulatory mechanism, lack of oversight, judicial intervention and closure of mines, an industry official said on Wednesday.

“Though the mining sector is the third largest employment generator after agriculture and construction, closure of mines in Karnataka and Goa has resulted in the loss of 12,80,000 direct and indirect jobs since 2011-12 due to ineffective regulatory mechanism, lack of monitoring and oversight at the ground level, and the Supreme Court’s interventions,” Federation of Indian Minerals Industries (Fimi) President Sunil Duggal told IANS here.

For every one job the sector creates, 10 indirect jobs are generated with a force multiplier through linkages and supply chains from mining the rich minerals to their use in the end products.

“Closure of 166 iron ore mines in Karnataka’s Bellary, Chitradurga and Tumkur districts since 2011 led to 80,000 direct lay-offs, affecting 8 lakh people indirectly. Similarly, suspension of all mining activities across Goa since 2012 for similar reasons resulted in the loss of 1 lakh direct and 3 lakh indirect jobs,” lamented Duggal.

The decade-long multi-crore scams in Karnataka’s ‘Republic of Bellary’ from 2001-2011 forced the apex court to ban mining in the southern state, favouring auctioning of the mines rather than leasing and renewing the licences of the miners.

“The top court on July 29, 2011 and August 26, 2011 banned all activities in Karnataka’s three mineral-rich districts due to encroachment and dumping beyond the lease areas, in which 166 firms were mining,” recalled Duggal.

Similarly, the apex court suspended all mining operations in Goa on October 5, 2012, as renewals were pending over the years and concerns were growing over the increasing environmental pollution in the absence of protective measures.
“Though the Goa government in 2014 renewed leases with checks and balances to mine iron ore up to 20 million tonne per annum, the Supreme Court on February 7, 2018 cancelled the renewal orders of 88 mines, leading to their closure on March 16, 2018,” said Duggal.

As in other core sectors, one mining job provides work for its associated functionaries, including truck owners, drivers, cleaners, repair shops, petrol-diesel retail outlets, hotels, groceries and banks.

“The closure of iron ore mining in Goa has adversely impacted the coastal state’s economy, with a revenue loss of Rs 5,830 crore for the state as well as the Centre,” said Duggal, who is also the Chief Executive of New Delhi-based Vedanta Ltd for base metals.

The Karnataka government lost Rs 10,000 crore over the last 7-8 years in the form of licence fee, royalty, taxes and duties. State-run banks suffered an asset deterioration of up to Rs 50,000 crore.

“The closure of mines affected raw material (iron) supply to steel and sponge iron plants in Karnataka, and caused production loss in downstream industries such as automobiles, consumer durables, machine tools and engineering products, jeopardising 2 lakh direct jobs,” Duggal said.

The lack of monitoring and oversight at the ground level by the state governments led to irregularities and poor implementation of mining laws.

“The failure of regulatory mechanism led to judicial intervention by the Supreme Court in Karnataka, Goa and even Odisha, where excessive production of iron and manganese ore beyond the environment clearance and other statutory limits forced the top court to impose 109 per cent penalties on the mining firms on June 2, 2017,” added Duggal.

As many firms were unable to pay the penalty, they had to shut the mines. Their closure led to the loss of direct/indirect jobs running into thousands.

விவி, டிரான்ஸ்வேர்ல்டு நிறுவனங்களுக்கான அவார்டு தமிழக கனிம தொழிலாளர்களின் உழைப்பிற்கான பரிசு

‘Highest exporter’ award bestowed on V V Minerals

DECCAN CHRONICLE. | M ARULOLI

Published Sep 19, 2019, 2:11 am IST
Updated Sep 19, 2019, 2:11 am IST
V V Minerals set an record by exporting 4,71,773 metric tons of heavy minerals that included garnet, ilmenite, rutile and zircon.
Managing partner of V V Minerals, V Subramanian, receiving the highest exporter award for the years 2015-16 and 2016-17 from Union commerce and industries minister, Piyush Goyel, at the CAPEXIL-organised function at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. (Photo: M Aruloli)

 Managing partner of V V Minerals, V Subramanian, receiving the highest exporter award for the years 2015-16 and 2016-17 from Union commerce and industries minister, Piyush Goyel, at the CAPEXIL-organised function at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. (Photo: M Aruloli)

TIRUNELVELI: Tirunelveli-based beach mineral industry, V V Minerals, caught in troubled waters since 2016, retained its prestige of being the country’s highest exporter of processed minerals for the fiscal year 2015 – 2016 and 2016 – 2017.

Managing partner of V V Minerals, V Subramanian, received the honour from Union minister of Commerce and Industries, Piyush Goyal, at a formal function organised by the Chemicals and Allied Products Export Council (CAPEXIL) at the Vigyan Bhawan auditorium in New Delhi, on Wednesday.

Referring to Goyal’s motivating speech at the function that he was ready to react positively to the demands of the chemical and allied industries to expand its footprints to reach the set one trillion export target, Subramanian hoped to see the effects of the minister’s words in reality.

V V Minerals set an record by exporting 4,71,773 metric tons of heavy minerals that included garnet, ilmenite, rutile and zircon for the year 2015-16 and 4,04,048 metric tons for the year 2016 – 2017. V V Minerals continued to retain its top exporter position among the chemical and allied industries numbering around 3,500 in the whole of India.

The Garnet India Private limited, a sister concern of V V Minerals, also was given a certificate of merit for its high export volume of processed minerals.

Source : https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/190919/highest-exporter-award-bestowed-on-v-v-minerals.html

2015-16 மற்றும் 2016-17 ஆண்டுகளுக்கும் விவி மினரல் நிறுவனமே அதிக தாதுமணல் ஏற்றுமதியாளர் விருதை பெறுகிறது.

ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டும் ஏற்றுமதியை ஊக்குவிப்பதற்காக இந்திய அரசு வணிகத்துறை சார்பில் CAPEXIL மூலம் சிறந்த ஏற்றுமதியாளர் தேர்ந்தெடுத்து விருது வழங்கி கவுரவிக்கப்படுவது வழக்கம். 2014-15 வரை தொடர்ந்து சிறந்த விருதை தமிழகத்தின் விவி மினரல் நிறுவனம் பெற்று வந்தது. 2016-17 நிதியாண்டில் நவம்பர் 2016-க்கு பிறகு சில அதிகாரிகளின் தவறான உத்தரவால் ஏற்றுமதி நிறுத்தப்பட்டது. 2015-க்கு பிறகு உள்ள சிறந்த ஏற்றுமதியாளரை அறிவிப்பதில் இந்திய அரசு காலதாமதம் செய்து வந்தது. ஆனால் தற்போது 2015-16, 2016-17 நிதியாண்டுகளுக்கு தாதுமணலில் அதிக ஏற்றுமதியாளர் (Highest Exporter) விருதை விவி மினரல் நிறுவனத்திற்கும், தாதுமணல் ஏற்றுமதியில் சர்ட்டிபிகேட் ஆப் மெரிட் சான்றிதழை மேற்கண்ட இரண்டு வருடங்களுக்கும் டிரான்ஸ்வேர்ல்டு கார்னட் இந்தியா பிரைவேட் லிமிடெட் நிறுவனத்திற்கும் என தேர்வு செய்து அறிவித்தது. அந்த விருது வழங்கும் விழா 18.09.2019 அன்று டெல்லி விஞ்ஞான்பவன் ஆடிட்டோரியத்தில் வைத்து நடைபெறுகிறது. மாண்புமிகு வணிகம் மற்றும் ரயில்வே துறை அமைச்சர் திரு. பியூஸ்; கோயல் அவர்கள் விருது வழங்குகிறார்கள். விருதுகளை விவி மினரல் மற்றும் டிரான்ஸ்வேர்ல்டு நிறுவனங்களின் நிர்வாக இயக்குனர்கள் திரு.வி.சுப்பிரமணியன் மற்றும் திரு.வி.வேல்முருகன் ஆகியோர் பெறுகிறார்கள். இந்த நிறுவனங்களில் எங்கள் சங்க உறுப்பினர்கள் பெரும்பான்மையோர் பணியாற்றி வருகிறார்கள் என்பது எங்களுக்கும் பெருமை. இந்தியாவிலேயே அதிக ஏற்றுமதியாளர் விருதை தொடர்ந்து பெற்று தமிழகத்திற்கும் பெருமை சேர்ந்த எங்கள் விவி மினரல் நிறுவனத்தை நீங்களும் சேர்ந்து வாழ்த்தலாமே!!
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Ref.No.: EPC/ST/VJ/AWARD/2015-16/2016-17/404                        Dated: Thursday, August 29, 2019

 

Kind attn.:

Mr. S. Vaikundarajan,

Managing Partner,

M/s. V.V. Mineral,

Tisaiyanvilai, Tamil Nadu.

Sub: CAPEXIL Export Award Presentation Ceremony for the year 2015-16 & 2016-17 to be celebrated on Wednesday, the 18th September, 2019 at 09.30 am at “Vigyan Bhavan”, (Plenary Hall) New Delhi.

Dear Sir/Madam,

At the outset, let us extend heartfelt gratitude for your constant patronage of our flagship event, namely Export Award Presentation Ceremony for so many years.

Congratulations!

The results for the CAPEXIL Awards for Excellence in Exports for the year 2015-16 & 2016-17 have been tabulated, and you have emerged a winner as follows:

 

Year Panel/Sector Award
2015-16 Minerals & Ores Sector Highest
2016-17 Minerals & Ores Sector Highest

 

The prestigious Export Award Presentation Ceremony for the year 2015-16 and 2016-17 of CAPEXIL are scheduled to be held as under:

 

 

Date :

 

Venue :

 

 

Chief Guest :

 

Wednesday, the 18th September, 2019, at 09.30 A.M.

 

Plenary Hall, Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.

 

The Hon’ble Minister of Commerce & Industries and Railways, Shri Piyush Goyal has kindly consented to grace the occasion as the Chief Guest and give away the export awards

 

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Vineet Jhabak

Joint Director(Accounts)

CAPEXIL

 

5 கோடி நபர்களுக்கு வேலைவாய்ப்பை உருவாக்கும் நிலையில் உள்ள சுரங்கத்துறை தற்போது வேலை இழப்பை சந்தித்து வருகிறது. FIMI அறிக்கையில் வெட்ட வெளிச்சம்.

நீர், காற்று, மரம் மற்றும் மரத்தாலான பொருட்கள், உணவு தவிர அனைத்தும் கனிமங்களில் இருந்தே உற்பத்தி செய்யப்படுகிறது. கற்கால மனிதன் கனிமம் தோண்டி உலோக காலத்திற்கு மாறியது தான் நாகரீக வளர்ச்சியின் முதல் படி. எனவே மனித குல வளர்ச்சியில் கனிமங்கள் மற்றும் சுரங்கங்களின் பங்கு அதிகம். சுய விருப்பு வெறுப்பிற்காக மற்றும் அகாரணங்களுக்காக இந்த சுரங்க துறையை மற்றும் குத்தகைதாரர்களை கசக்கி பிழிவதை விடுத்து அரசு உரிய உதவிகள் செய்தால் சுமார் 5 கோடி நபர்களுக்கு வேலை வாய்ப்பை உருவாக்க முடியும். ஆனால் துரதிஷ்டவசமாக தற்போது சுரங்கத்துறையில் வேலை இழப்பு தான் அதிகமாக உள்ளது. இதற்கு அரசின் தவறான கொள்கை முடிவு காரணமா? அல்லது அதிகாரிகளின் தவறான நடவடிக்கை காரணமா? என ஆராய்வதை விடுத்து இந்த சுரங்கத்துறையை மனித குல வளர்ச்சிக்கும் அனைவருக்கும் வேலை வாய்ப்பை வழங்கவும் அதன் மூலம் அரசுக்கு பெரும் தொகை அன்னிய செலவாணியாகவும், ராயல்டியாகவும் கிடைக்க செய்யலாமே!! அரசு செயல்படுமா?
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Mining sector witnessing job losses; has potential to create about 5 crore jobs: FIMI to PM

By: |

Published: September 8, 2019 3:45:36 PM

In order to achieve India’s vision of a USD 5 trillion economy and 8 per cent GDP growth, significantly higher contribution by mining sector in gross domestic product would be required, it said.

Mining sector,  job losses, FIMI, mining industry, Narendra Modi, emoplyment, 5 trillion economy,  GDPThe Indian mining sector employed approximately 23 lakh people in 2011-12.

Stressing that the mining industry is witnessing job losses, apex mineral body FIMI has sought the intervention of Prime Minister Narendra Modi for much-needed reforms that would accelerate growth in the sector which has the potential to create employment opportunities for about five crore people.

“Like any other industry today in India, mining sector is also passing through a phase of lost employment opportunities… (with) government support and much needed reforms, the mining sector has the potential to provide employment opportunities to about 50 lakh people directly and create overall employment opportunities for about 5 crore people in India,” the Federation of Indian Mineral Industries (FIMI) said in a letter to the Prime Minister dated September 5.

Asserting that in the past mining industry has emerged as the third largest employment generating sector, it said growth in the sector has always benefitted job creation in relatively backward states that have lower per capita income than the national average like Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.

In order to achieve India’s vision of a USD 5 trillion economy and 8 per cent GDP growth, significantly higher contribution by mining sector in gross domestic product would be required, it said. But as of now, the contribution of mining sector in GDP is decreasing, FIMI said as it requested the Prime Minister’s intervention “for much needed fast-track reforms that could accelerate the growth in mining sector and create massive jobs in the country”.

The Indian mining sector employed approximately 23 lakh people in 2011-12. Since the ratio of direct to indirect employment in the mining sector is 1:10, it is estimated that around 2.30 crore people gained employment through mining sector in the year 2011-12. This also included employment generated in secondary and ancillary sectors, it said.

Source : https://www.financialexpress.com/economy/mining-sector-witnessing-job-losses-has-potential-to-create-about-5-crore-jobs-fimi-to-pm/1699773/

Government control over Beach Mineral will benefit Australia and China and Indian export market will be destroyed

Because of China’s Control over Rare Earth, Japan is benefited. With the same way, since India control beach minerals, Australia and China are the beneficiaries. India lose their export market developed by the continuous hard working of three decades which cannot be recovered for the next 10 to 15 years. All this on because of the vindictive action of former District Collector of Tuticorin who is now working under the State Minister of Prime Minister office.

 

China’s rare earth curbs benefit Japan – FIMI News Bullettin Dt. 15.08.2019 (1)

Fimi wants parity for private miners in excavating beach sand minerals

Fimi wants parity for private miners in excavating beach sand minerals

Takes exception to Centre’s stand to allow only PSUs in this area, says private sector has been contributing Rs 5,000 crore a year to current revenue since this area was opened to it.

Taking exception to the Government of India’s stand to allow only public sector entities to mine beach sand minerals, (Fimi) has pitched for a level playing field for private sector miners.

As per a notification by the Union ministry dated February 20 2019, only government-owned are permitted to mine (BSM). feels the government order undermines the role of private sector in BSM mining.

“Private sector has been playing active role in mining BSM and contributing Rs 5,000 crore a year to the current revenue since this sector was opened to it. Further, this sector has been exporting BSM to the tune of Rs 4,000 crore annually”, said in its submission to planning think-tank Niti Aayog.

“It happens only in India that instead of improving our regulatory regime, we blame only private industry which in this case resulted in job loss to lakhs of workers engaged directly and indirectly. Closing of an industry is not the solution”, it added.

Closure of BSM for private sector miners is already having an adverse impact on downstream units and they will now have to fall back on imports.

India is endowed with ample deposits of BSM. The BSM deposits can be replenished by natural phenomena due to specific gravity of the mineral grains.

has demanded that private sector be continued to mine BSM by rescinding the earlier notification of the ministry.

Source : https://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/fimi-wants-parity-for-private-miners-in-excavating-beach-sand-minerals-119052801089_1.html

கோவாவிலும் சுரங்க தொழில் நிறுத்தத்தால் பாதிப்பில் உள்ள மக்கள் விடிவு காலத்தை எதிர் நோக்கி உள்ளார்கள்

VILLAGERS IN SOUTH GOA’S COSTI REMINISCE ABOUT BETTER DAYS AS HOPES
FOR REVIVAL OF BANNED MINING INDUSTRY FADE

There’s bleakness in the warm afternoon air in south Goa’s Costi village; because there’s a big question mark on the future of mining operations in the area, which was heavily dependent on the nearby Chowgule iron ore mine. For 26 years, Rama Naik, a resident of the village,
worked at that iron ore processing plant and earned enough to run his household. Now, he is barely scraping by. “I used to earn Rs 30,000 a month by working on beneficiation at the plant when mining was on. Now, I do odd jobs and don’t even get Rs 3,000 every month. The
past three-four years have been tough; when mining came to a complete standstill, I quit. I have no hope it will ever resume,” Naik said.

Costi is around 65 kilometres from the Goa capital Panaji. The village and its roads, previously full of lorries and trucks transporting the ore when mining was in full swing, now wear a forlorn look. These mines, which used to employ hundreds, now have a lone security guard to
keep trespassers away. The locals often reminisce about the days when one had to navigate through the long lines of trucks and packed roads to go about their daily chores.
And though many see the mining issue and elections as unrelated, they aren’t blind to political parties using the issue as “an election tool” to make new promises about restarting mining. Goa, which voted on 23 April, recorded a voter turnout of 74.72 percent in the Lok Sabha elections and 80.25 percent in the three Assembly bypolls held simultaneously.

Bitter pill or silver lining?

The story of Costi is the story of all villages situated on the state’s mining belt, which, according to geologists, extends diagonally from Pernem in north Goa through Bicholim, Sattari, and Quepem to Sanguem in south Goa. Since 15 March, 2018, 88 mines have become inactive after a ruling by the Supreme Court on a petition filed by the NGO Goa Foundation against the renewal of the mines’ leases by the state government.

“The Supreme Court clearly asked the state government to issue fresh leases through an auction. [This was a verdict to a writ petition by the Goa Foundation on the illegality of mining
in the state in 2014] Instead of doing that, the state renewed the existing leases. We brought the issue to SC’s notice again, and in 2018, it ordered shutting down of mines operating under a renewed lease. The state has not adhered to the court’s instructions. Our recommendations were to put a cap on the amount mined and also to form a special permanent fund from the mining earnings for the welfare of the people of Goa,” said Claude Alvares, president of Goa Foundation.

There are also other organisations in the state that have been up in arms against the illegal mining due to its environmental implications. Abhijit Prabhudesai, a farmer and general secretary of the Federation of Rainbow Warriors, said that after mining stopped, the agricultural yield in the mining belt increased by nearly 70 percent.

“Farmers who were troubled by the lack of water due to mining have said their yields have increased manifold. The mining that took place in the 90s and 2000s went unchecked and, as a
result, mines were dug even below the water table. In the mining belt, people are facing a water crisis, so most of the locals don’t want mining to resume. In a short span of 20 to 30 years,
our generation has depleted more than half of our iron ores. So it’s only fair that we let the future generations decide whether or not mining should resume after 20 years,” he added.

At the mercy of the mining lobby?

Who wants mining resumed? To this, Prabhudesai replied that it is in the interests of the influential mining lobby, which consists of business families and those who own the leases and
have invested heavily in the mines. The mining lobby in Goa is exceedingly powerful, and the lease owners don’t want fresh leases through auctions; they fear that larger corporations will take away their leases. It is also alleged that the state government is stalling the resuming of mining at their behest. That’s why this is a contentious issue, especially with the ongoing Lok Sabha elections.

In 2018, nearly 25,000 people whose livelihoods were affected after the ban on mining came together to form Goa Mining People’s Front. Since then, the front has become a voice of the mine workers, truckers, mechanics, and small shop owners. Its president, Putti Gaonkar, said, “The government filed a petition in the SC only this year. This clearly shows how the state wants to use this issue as an election tool. Nearly one-third of the population in the state has been affected by the ban. The people in the mining belt are angry, and I am sure they have given a befitting reply to the government in the elections.”

Playing politics

Only two seats in the Lok Sabha are from Goa: north and south. For the past 20 years, the north Goa seat has been held by BJP’s Shripad Naik. The BJP has held the south Goa seat twice in the
past 20 years (in 1999 and in 2014). Also, BJP-led governments have ruled the state since 2012. For the party, winning the two seats in a state long considered its bastion is a matter of prestige.

The Opposition, however, alleged that there is a nexus between the mining lease holders and the government. Avinash Tavares, spokesperson for the Goa Pradesh Congress Committee, said, “For the past five years, the BJP government has not provided any alternative to the people (truck drivers, miners, etc). They are holding these people ransom, saying they will bring mining back only if they vote for the BJP. The party fooled the people in 2014 and is at it again this year. We, however, would like to promise that we will bring mining back in a sustainable manner, through auctions and a mining corporation.”

The government, on the other hand, rubbished all the allegations and said it is confident of winning both seats. Minister of Power and MLA from Curchorem (south Goa), Nilesh Cabral said, “We promised during the 2014 elections to resume mining, and we did.

Meanwhile, the same court is yet to reach a verdict in another case regarding the 1987 Act (Abolition of Mining Concessions and Declaration as Mining Leases Act), which is now at the constitutional bench. In that case [in the Supreme Court for the last 20 years], the apex court asked us to allow mining until a judgment was delivered, while another bench hearing the NGO’s petition stopped mining. As a result of this duality, we are unable to take any concrete action. The people of Goa know it was the Supreme Court decision that led to these problems, and they also know that our government, led by Prime Minister Narendra Modiji, will work
only for their benefit.”

The issue is an intricate one. Almost everyone alleged wrongdoing by the government at the behest of the mining lobby, while a few are optimistic that the government is working in the interests of those dependent on mining.

Reference : Geonesis May 2019 Issue Volume 6

Government directs to cancel the mining lease granted to Indian Garnet Sand Company by violation of law

Indian Garnet Sand Company obtained six mining leases in Ratragiri District, Maharashtra by violating MMDR Act and Rules.  When it was taken up to the notice of Ministry of Mines, Govt., of India, MOM vide letter No. 7/4/2018-M-IV dated 30.08.2018 directed the Maharashtra to cancel these leases immediately as these are ab initio, void under section 19 of the MMDR Act. They further approach Ministry of Environment and Forest, which was also rejected by Govt., of India, Ministry of Environment and Forest.

MOM order

தென் மாவட்டங்களில் தொழில் வளர்ச்சி பாதிக்கப் பட்டு வருகிறது. நியூஸ் 7 தமிழ் உளவு பார்வை

தமிழகத்தில் ஆண்டுக்கு சுமார் 10 லட்சம் பேர் பிளஸ் 2 பரீட்சை எழுதி வருகிறார்கள். எனவே ஆண்டுக்கு 10 லட்சம் புதிய வேலை வாய்ப்பை உருவாக்க வேண்டியது அரசின் கடமை. ஆனால் உண்மையில் ஏராளமான தொழில்கள் குறிப்பாக தென்மாவட்டங்களில் உள்ள தொழில்கள் அனைத்தும் பாதிக்கப் பட்டுள்ளன. ஏற்கனவே பணியாற்றி வந்தவர்களும் பணி இழக்கும் நிலையில் உள்ளார்கள். இவ்வாறு தென் மாவட்டங்கள் எவ்வாறு எல்லாம் பாதிக்கப் பட்டுள்ளன என்பதை நியூஸ் 7 தமிழ் உளவு பார்வையில் தெளிவாக படம் பிடித்து வெளியிட்டுள்ளார்கள். இது அனைவரும் தெரிந்து கொள்ள கீழே கொடுக்கப் பட்டுள்ளது.